From “Anatomical Illustration: Art informing Science: 1543 – 1950″



The following images are taken from the virtual exhibition on the occasion of the 6th annual MU Life Sciences and Society Symposium (March 2010). continue reading here:

library.missouri.edu




"Plate II of De Venarum Ostiolis illustrates the presence and structure of the veins in the human arm using a ligature. The veins of the arm are also dissected out and opened lengthwise to show the anatomical structure of the valves"

“Plate II of De Venarum Ostiolis illustrates the presence and structure of the veins in the human arm using a ligature. The veins of the arm are also dissected out and opened lengthwise to show the anatomical structure of the valves. [Hieronymus Fabricius, "De Venarum Ostiolis", Padua: Lorenzo Pasquati, 1603]“





In Plate "IIII" from De Formato Foetu, a life-like female figure is posed before a background that resembles the illustrations of Vesalius in De Humani Corporis Fabrica, published over eighty years earlier. The dissection of the woman's abdomen depicts the incisions as a flower with the fetus as the stigma or flower center. Adriaan van den Spiegel. Adriani Spigelli Brvxellensis Equvistis... De Formato Foetv: Liber Singularis Aeneis  Figvris Exornatus.... Frankfort: Matthæus Merianus, 1631.

In Plate “IIII” from De Formato Foetu, a life-like female figure is posed before a background that resembles the illustrations of Vesalius in De Humani Corporis Fabrica, published over eighty years earlier. The dissection of the woman’s abdomen depicts the incisions as a flower with the fetus as the stigma or flower center. [Adriaan van den Spiegel, "Adriani Spigelli Brvxellensis Equvistis...De Formato Foetv: Liber Singularis Aeneis Figvris Exornatus...., Frankfort, Matthæus Merianus, 1631.





Thomas Bartholin. Anatomia, Ex Caspari Bartholini Parentis Institutionibus... Ad Sanguinis Circulationem.... The Hague: Adrian Vlacq, 1666.

Thomas Bartholin, “Anatomia, Ex Caspari Bartholini Parentis Institutionibus… Ad Sanguinis Circulationem….”, The Hague, Adrian Vlacq, 1666





Volvelles, or graphic wheels, are devices consisting of a series of movable discs that collate a large amount of information into a compact delivery device. The contents of Bodyscope-shown here in its fourth edition-are presented on four, pierced card sleeves, with a turning disc inside. Each of the four "pages" has three pierced sections containing five subjects on the rotating disc beneath. Each page focuses on a different physiological area and includes both descriptive and explanatory passages for each organ system.  [Ralph H. Segal, Theodore I. Segal, and William Brown McNett. Bodyscope. New York: Se-Mac Holding Corporation, 1948.]

Volvelles, or graphic wheels, are devices consisting of a series of movable discs that collate a large amount of information into a compact delivery device. The contents of Bodyscope-shown here in its fourth edition-are presented on four, pierced card sleeves, with a turning disc inside. Each of the four “pages” has three pierced sections containing five subjects on the rotating disc beneath. Each page focuses on a different physiological area and includes both descriptive and explanatory passages for each organ system… [Ralph H. Segal, Theodore I. Segal, and William Brown McNett, "Bodyscope", New York, Se-Mac Holding Corporation, 1948]





This photograph shows William Perry Woods, flanked by two other medical students, dissecting a cadaver in the anatomical laboratory. Woods was a medical student at the University of Missouri from 1901 to 1904 [Cadaver Dissection. Photograph from collection C:0/46/10. 1901.]

This photograph shows William Perry Woods, flanked by two other medical students, dissecting a cadaver in the anatomical laboratory. Woods was a medical student at the University of Missouri from 1901 to 1904… [Cadaver Dissection, Photograph from collection C:0/46/10.1901]





Franz Joseph Gall and his assistant Johann Gaspar Spurzheim are the fathers of the science of phrenology. Gall began developing his theories in late eighteenth-century Vienna, where he observed that similar abilities seemed to correspond with certain physiological characteristics of the skull. Spurzheim further developed Gall's ideas and helped spread the science with his lectures and presentations in England, Scotland, and the United States... [Anonymous (George Combe?) Outlines of Phrenology, or of the Philosophy of Man, Founded by Drs Gall and Spurzheim. Edinburgh: P. Neill, 1822]

Franz Joseph Gall and his assistant Johann Gaspar Spurzheim are the fathers of the science of phrenology. Gall began developing his theories in late eighteenth-century Vienna, where he observed that similar abilities seemed to correspond with certain physiological characteristics of the skull. Spurzheim further developed Gall’s ideas and helped spread the science with his lectures and presentations in England, Scotland, and the United States… [Anonymous (George Combe?), "Outlines of Phrenology, or of the Philosophy of Man, Founded by Drs Gall and Spurzheim", Edinburgh, P. Neill, 1822]





or the past century phrenology has been seen as a "pseudo-science" at best and a punch line at worst, but recently some scientists have been reexamining the role of phrenology as a precursor to a number of reputable practices today, such as criminology and brain scanning and imaging. Coming at the end of the Enlightenment, phrenology sought for a scientific way to explain human actions and personalities rather than simply labeling all antisocial behavior as sin. In addition to advocating treating criminals rather than simply condemning them, phrenologists joined the call for abolition of capital punishment [Cesare Lombroso. The Female Offender. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1909]

For the past century phrenology has been seen as a “pseudo-science” at best and a punch line at worst, but recently some scientists have been reexamining the role of phrenology as a precursor to a number of reputable practices today, such as criminology and brain scanning and imaging. Coming at the end of the Enlightenment, phrenology sought for a scientific way to explain human actions and personalities rather than simply labeling all antisocial behavior as sin. In addition to advocating treating criminals rather than simply condemning them, phrenologists joined the call for abolition of capital punishment. [Cesare Lombroso, "The Female Offender", New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1909]


Museo delle cere anatomiche “Luigi Cattaneo”



MUSEO DELLE CERE ANATOMICHE

“Luigi Cattaneo”


Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna


museocereanatomiche.it


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The Museum’s collection of normal and pathological wax anatomical models and preserved specimens provides a clear understanding of the developments in medical knowledge that took place during the 18th and 19th centuries. By the 19th century, the workings of the human body had been thoroughly investigated and interest was especially directed to abnormalities and disease.The wax models and dried anatomical preparations of the Luigi Cattaneo collection are an historical follow on from the 18th century collection of normal human anatomy to be found in the Palazzo Poggi museums. They show the advances made by medical knowledge between the 18th and 19th centuries in Bologna, the citysynonymous with medical studies… (continue reading)




Wax model by Clemente Michelangelo Susini

Wax model by Clemente Michelangelo Susini




Wax model by Giuseppe Astorri

Wax model by Giuseppe Astorri




Wax model by Cesare Bettini

Wax model by Cesare Bettini



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From Cheselden’s plates of the human bones, 1816


 

William Cheselden: Cheselden’s plates of the human bones, correctly reduced from the original copy, and improved with additional figures; accompanied with concise explanations for the use of students (1816)

 

for the whole plates: archive.org


"Front view of the male skeleton, with some of the cartilages and ligaments which connect the bones to each other"

“Front view of the male skeleton, with some of the cartilages and ligaments which connect the bones to each other”



"Back view of the male skeleton, with some of the cartilages and ligaments which connect the bones to each other"

“Back view of the male skeleton, with some of the cartilages and ligaments which connect the bones to each other”



"Connected view of the head and face"

“Connected view of the head and face”



"A view of the whole bones of the trunk"

“A view of the whole bones of the trunk”




Morbid Anatomy Exhibition (and more)


 

Ecstatic Raptures and Immaculate Corpses: Visions of Death Made Beautiful in Italy

An exhibition of photographs by Joanna Ebenstein of Morbid Anatomy with waxworks by Eleanor Crook & Sigrid Sarda


Viktor Wynde Fine Art, 11 Mare Street, London, E8 4RP

Opening Reception: September 6, 6-8, Sponsored by Hendricks Gin



In her many projects, ranging from photography to curation to writing, New York based Joanna Ebenstein utilizes a combination of art and scholarship to tease out the ways in which the pre-rational roots of modernity are sublimated into ostensibly “purely rational” cultural activities such as science and medicine. Much of her work uses this approach to investigate historical moments or artifacts where art and science, death and beauty, spectacle and edification, faith and empiricism meet in ways that trouble contemporary categorical expectations. In the exhibition “Ecstatic Raptures and Immaculate Corpses” Ebenstein turns this approach to an examination of the uncanny and powerfully resonant representations of the dead, martyred, and anatomized body in Italy, monuments to humankind’s quest to eternally preserve the corporeal body and defeat death in arenas sacred and profane.The artifacts she finds in both the churches, charnel houeses and anatomical museums of Italy complicate our ideas of the proper roles of—and divisions between—science and religion, death and beauty; art and science; eros and thanatos; sacred and profane; body and soul. In this exhibition, you will be introduced to tantalizing visions of death made beautiful, uncanny monuments to the human dream of life eternal. You will meet “Blessed Ismelda Lambertini,” an adolescent who fell into a fatal swoon of overwhelming joy at the moment of her first communion with Jesus Christ, now commemorated in a chillingly beautiful wax effigy in a Bolognese church; The Slashed Beauty, swooning with a grace at once spiritual and worldly as she makes a solemn offering of her immaculate viscera; Saint Vittoria, with slashed neck and golden ringlets, her waxen form reliquary to her own powerful bones; and the magnificent and troubling Anatomical Venuses, rapturously ecstatic life-sized wax women reclining voluptuously on silk and velvet cushions, asleep in their crystal coffins, awaiting animation by inquisitive hands eager to dissect them into their dozens of demountable, exactingly anatomically correct, wax parts. (from the postcard invitation)


more info about the exhibition and other events at : morbidanatomy.blogspot.com


















Wellcome Collection : Brains


Brains: The mind as matter


29 March – 17 June 2012


Wellcome Collection


wellcomecollection.org


“Our major new free exhibition seeks to explore what humans have done to brains in the name of medical intervention, scientific enquiry, cultural meaning and technological change.

Featuring over 150 artefacts including real brains, artworks, manuscripts, artefacts, videos and photography, ‘Brains’ follows the long quest to manipulate and decipher the most unique and mysterious of human organs, whose secrets continue to confound and inspire.

‘Brains’ asks not what brains do to us, but what we have done to brains, focusing on the bodily presence of the organ rather than investigating the neuroscience of the mind”


Phrenological head (Victoire) - Plaster model (copy), c. 1825

This is a plaster copy of a cast from the head of a 24-year-old woman named Victoire, described as an idiot and suffering from microcephaly, a rare genetic condition that restricts brain development. It came from the collection of the British Phrenological Society, which also included plaster casts of the heads of eminent persons and the skulls of other primates for comparison. Phrenology was controversial and dismissed by many as pseudo-science, but the British Phrenological Society survived until 1967.*


The Anatomy of the Brain - Watercolour in book, Charles Bell, 1823

Distinguished British anatomist and surgeon Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842) published the first edition of ‘The Anatomy of the Brain’ in 1802. Bell undertook significant work on the localisation of brain function in the cerebrum (the largest portion of the brain, consisting of folded bulges called gyri) and the cerebellum. This plate shows the “general anatomy and subdivisions of the brain” and membranes, veins and arteries covering it. The pose of the head shows the usual method of positioning it for dissection at the time.*


Pre-operative photograph of female patient with craniopharyngioma - Black-and-white photograph, 1919

Many of the patients in these photographs presented with much more advanced tumours than would normally go unchecked today. The 15-year-old subject of this photograph suffered years of headaches, nausea, convulsions, restricted development and impaired vision before being referred to the famous brain surgeon, Dr Harvey Cushing. She was in and out of hospital for the next 12 years, although the final letter in her file, from her father in 1931, strikes an optimistic note and thanks Cushing for his care.*


Examination of the skull and brain: method of removing the brain after it is severed from the body - Henry W. Cattell, 1903

The brain is notoriously difficult to access and a set of careful procedures are required to remove its protective layers of skin and bone to facilitate removal after death. This delicate process marks the transitional moment between the brain as ‘self’ and the brain as an object of study, when it usually becomes physically disconnected from the spine and is completely exposed. This photograph was made for a textbook on post-mortems.*

 




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